By Moojan Momen

This ebook is a normal advent to Shi’i Islam—specifically to Twelver Shi’ism, to which nearly all of Shi’is belong this present day.  It bargains with the background and improvement of this crucial faith, giving an account of Shi’i doctrines and focusing particularly on these components during which it differs from Sunni Islam. 
“Momen’s e-book fills an incredible hole within the common literature in English on Twelver Shi’ism, and may be rigorously studied via someone who desires to comprehend extra approximately what's taking place within the center East today….This is an excellent paintings which merits the widest attainable readership.”—Malise Ruthven, The heart East
“An super priceless reference resource at the institution and evolution of the Shi’ite department of the Islamic religion.”—Cecil V. Crabb, Jr., Perspective
“An unpretentious sort, interpretive readability and . . . sound judgment symbolize Momen’s writings. a number of the points of Twelver Shi’ism are conscientiously extraordinary to meet either the overall reader and the aspiring student.”—Norman Calder, Times Literary Supplement
“Specialist and nonspecialist alike will make the most of its lucid exposition of either elite and well known Shi’ism. particularly helpful is the best way the paintings provides smooth severe scholarship on Shi’i historical past along the orthodox background, which nonetheless has nice effect at the religion’s self-understanding.”—Mel Piehl, Library Journal 
Moojan Momen has written greatly on Iran and heart East religion.

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Historical information cannot be trusted in its plain transmitted form. 5 Ibn Khaldūn provides many illustrations of these errors. For example, he notes that the renowned historian al-Mas‘ūdī, and many others, reported that Moses’ army of Israelites consisted of more than 600,000 arms-bearing men in battle. Al-Mas‘ūdī failed to consider if it were indeed possible for an army of that size to do battle. Such a large army in battle would extend much beyond the field of vision. Ibn Khaldūn notes that this was the case with battle formations during his time and that this fact was sufficient to testify to the situation of the past.

Even if Nebuchadnezzar had commanded all of these 200,000 men, it is unlikely that he went into battle against 600,000 Israelites. 6 Another example of erroneous statements by historians is from the history of the kings of Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula, the Tubba‘s. They are said to have conducted raids of Ifrīqiyā and the Berbers of North Africa. One of the Tubba‘ kings, Afrīqus bin Qays bin Ṣayfā, was said to have massacred the Berbers. It was further claimed that it was Afrīqus who gave the name “Berber” to them.

35 Ibn Khaldūn spent his last days in Cairo, where he was appointed to the post of Malikite judge for a total of six times. He was reappointed to the post of judge in the latter part of 803 AH. He died on the 26th of Ramaḍān 808 AH/16 March 1406 AD, just a few weeks after his sixth and final appointment. The works of Ibn Khaldūn Ibn Khaldūn’s greatest work, and the one that is relevant to the modern discipline of sociology, the Muqaddimah, forms a part of his monumental study, the Kitāb al-‘Ibar Dīwān al-Mubtadā’ wa-l-Khabar fī Ayyām al-‘Arab wa-l-‘Ajam wa-l-Barbar (Book of Examples and the Collection of Origins of the History of the Arabs and Berbers), an empirical work on the history of the Arabs and Berbers in several volumes.

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