By John Greco

Once we verify (or deny) that somebody is familiar with whatever, we're creating a price judgment of types - we're claiming that there's whatever stronger (or inferior) approximately that person's opinion, or their proof, or even approximately them. A crucial job of the speculation of information is to enquire this type of overview at factor. this is often the 1st ebook to make 'epistemic normativity,' or the normative size of information and data ascriptions, its critical concentration. John Greco argues that wisdom is one of those success, in preference to mere fortunate luck. This locates wisdom inside of a broader, popular normative area. by way of reflecting on our pondering and practices during this area, it's argued, we achieve perception into what wisdom is and how much price it has for us.

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Extra info for Achieving Knowledge: A Virtue-Theoretic Account of Epistemic Normativity

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The first argument for this possibility comes from Thomas Reid. According to Reid, it is a matter of fact that human beings perceive physical objects by means of sensory experience. Given the way human cognition actually works, it is necessary that there be some physical interaction with the object perceived, which interaction gives rise to sensations, which in turn give rise to perceptual beliefs about the object. Although there is no reasoning in perception, yet there are certain means and instruments, which, by the appointment of nature, must intervene between the object and our perception of it; and, by these, our perceptions are limited and regulated.

Discussing a different example, Kant writes: To help others where one can is a duty, and besides this there are many spirits of so sympathetic a temper that, without any further motive of vanity or selfinterest, they find an inner pleasure in spreading happiness around them and can take delight in the contentment of others as their own work. 7 of reasons. First, rule theorists in both ethics and epistemology tend to speak in terms of obligation and duty, and so rule-based theories and duty-based theories in both fields tend to overlap.

In Section 2 I develop the argument against weak deontological theories of knowledgerelevant normativity, or theories that endorse D(W). In Section 3 I develop the argument against strong deontological theories of knowledge-relevant normativity, or theories that endorse D(S). In Section 4 I briefly argue that a virtue-theoretic account can avoid the objections raised against both kinds of deontological theory. Again, a virtue-theoretic account becomes especially attractive in the light of the considerations here raised against deontological theories.

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