By Mohammed Akram Nadwi
Abu Hanifah Nu'man ibn Thabit was once one of many maximum pioneers within the heritage of Islamic legislation, rather in criminal reasoning. The Hanafi felony university that he based has develop into the main largely one of the world's Muslims. in response to basic resources, this examine of the lifestyles and legacy of Abu Hanifah additionally surveys the evolution of Hanafi criminal reasoning (fiqh) in numerous areas of the Islamic international and assesses its ancient distinctiveness.
Mohammed Akram Nadwi is a examine fellow on the Oxford Centre for Islamic experiences, and is the writer of numerous works together with al-Muhaddithat: the ladies students in Islam (2007).
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Their students, as I noted above, relied more than their teachers had, on written records of the Sunnah or ḥadīth texts, to assist their memorization and understanding of them. Inevitably, they carried these recorded texts with them from teacher to teacher. For all the principal matters of faith, rites and everyday transactions, there was a large number of ḥadīths, widely known and accepted as ṣaḥīḥ (authentic), with negligible variation in their meaning or even wording. Abū Ḥanīfah, who had turned to the study of Islamic law at this critical juncture in its history, relied extensively upon such ḥadīths.
In later centuries, when the compendia of biographical sketches of the Companions and their successors were compiled, their personal reputations remained the most prominent element. They are praised for the quality of their islām, that is, the quality of their self-transcendence expressed as surrender to the will of God, their obedience and love of Him and of His Messenger. In modern idiom, this quality translates as the capacity to balance short-term interests with long-term ones: they had to balance the need to resolve the immediate problems and disputes before them against the need to preserve the ethos of Islamic society for future generations.
And Interface Publications Ltd. The right of Mohammad Akram Nadwi to be identified as the Author of this work is hereby asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electrical, mechanical or other, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN: 978-1-84774-053-3 A CIP data record for this book is available from the British Library Contents Preface —About Abū Ḥanīfah —About this book —Acknowledgements 1 Introduction: background to the first development of the law —The importance of the law in Islam —After the death of the Prophet —The emergence of Islamic scholars —Scholars as judges and jurisconsults —‘Qurān and Sunnah’: a clarification 2 His life —Name and ancestry —Early education —Training in fiqh —Reputation in ḥadīth circles —His teachers in ḥadīth and fiqh —His relations with the state; imprisonment and death —His descendants — His livelihood and personal qualities —The view of contemporaries and peers 3 His fiqh —The Kufan school of fiqh —Abū Ḥanīfah and the Kufan school —Sources and principles of his fiqh —The Qurān and Sunnah and ijmā —Preference between ḥadīth and qiyās —Ijmā and qiyās —Istiḥsān —Characteristics of Abū Ḥanīfah’s fiqh —Ahl al-ray and ahl al-ḥadīth 4 His works and his students —Kalām (dogmatics and theology) —Ḥadīth —His students: ḥadīth specialists jurists 5 His achievement and legacy —Abū Ḥanīfah’s fiqh: an overview —Regional spread of the Ḥanafī school —Developments of the fiqh works of the school —Development of uṣūl al-fiqh in the Ḥanafī school —The modern period —Postscript 6 Sources and Further reading —Sources —Further reading: Abū Ḥanīfah’s life —Abū Ḥanīfah’s fiqh Bibliography Index —Qur’anic verses and Prophetic traditions cited —Geographical terms —Names of persons and groups —Keywords, concepts, topics —Transliterated words and phrases List of charts; image 1 Transmission of ḥadīth, through the students of major narrators among the Companions, to Abū Ḥanīfah 2 Transmission of fiqh, through the students of major jurists among the Companions, to Abū Ḥanīfah 3 Transmission of ḥadīth, through Abū Ḥanīfah’s students, to the compilers of the ‘Six Books’ of ḥadīth 4 Transmission of fiqh, through the students of Abū Ḥanīfah, to the founders of the Shāfiī and Ḥanbalī schools The Abū Ḥanīfah masjid, Baghdad, where he is buried, ca.