By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric
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Additional info for A Grammar of Mina
First examples of the third person suffix added to high-tone verbs: 6. '" (94) v/ a mbal-u vi who 3SG like-3SG who 'Everybody liked her' a 3SG mbal-ü like-3SG Here is an example of the third person suffix added to a low tone verb. '" The determining factor in assignment of the polar tone is the last preceding tone as realized in the surface structure, rather than the underlying tone. e. a marker with high tone, the point of view-of-subject marker has low tone. ' (tor 'separate people who are fighting'; 'save') Similarly the third person object marker added to the consonantal root, has the tone opposite of the last preceding tone: (99) ha tdl kd mal ba \vada mamarj 2SG try INF seize ASSC food his mother md d-u REL cook-3SG 'If you try to discipline [children] with food [be refusing food] it is the mother who cooks it' If the object were to be sensitive to the underlying tone of the verb, which is low, the tone of the object marker u would have been high.
Most borrowings from Fula have high tones: gaw 'hunter' -» gaw; \vurt 'leave' -» wurt\ mallum 'teacher' -»mallum; deft 'book' -*def 'book, Koran'; derewol 'papef-* derewol. But there are also low-tone borrowed words: gam 'because' -» ngam; deftere 'book'—» deftere. g. nastd and nasfe 'enter'. 2 Tone and vowel deletion If a vowel is deleted the tone of the syllable is also deleted. Consider the behavior of object pronouns. ) 'It was this person who hit me. 3 Tone and vowel replacement When a suffix is added to a morpheme ending in a vowel, and the vowel is by itself not a grammatical marker, such a vowel is deleted before suffixation.
9 Consonant clusters There are no three consonant clusters in word initial position. Twoconsonant clusters are allowed in word-initial position, word- and phrase-medial position, and in word-final position. The phrase- medial clusters emerge as a result of the rule that deletes word-final vowels in phrase-internal position. In word-initial position the most frequent are clusters with a sonorant, whether an obstruent followed by a sonorant, a sonorant followed by an obstruent, or a sonorant followed by a sonorant: (28) zr rn rt nk ndr mv zrumbä r-nän r-tokorj nkwä ndn mvä 'proper name, masculine' 'my hand' or rd nan Our hands' or rd tokon 'goat' 'sorghum' (nd is prenasalized stop) 'feces, refuse' An affricate may be followed by a stop: 16 Phonology (29) tstöß tskö tspädap 'chew' 'evening' 'remain crouched' In word-medial position the following types of clusters are allowed: Sonorant and sonorant: (30) tdrlan mäywä 'turn' 'pancreas' Sonorant and continuant: (31) mddmgwdrze 'donkey' Sonorant and stop: (32) bdlc&m borgadan bdrtlk tbrßos mbarkanta 'sweetness, joy, happiness' 'millet' 'dust' 'twist' 'nine' Stop and sonorant: (33) blmbriv mazeklew 'large 'shadow' Many clusters with two stops occur as a result of the reduplication of morphemes with consonantal onsets and codas: (34) bedbeden birtidblrtid dddzkddddk 'a type of dance' 'quickly' 'completely' However, there are also instances of clusters of two stops with no evidence of a composite structure: (35) dddkuts 'constellation' Nasal and stops are very frequent clusters: 3.