By A.E.R. Woodcock

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**Extra info for A Geometrical Study of the Elementary Catastrophes**

**Example text**

Similar sections w i t h E positive. (Fig. 18). Figure 19 shows Sections in w h i c h A is p o s i t i v e or zero and B and E are also zero are typically cuspoid (Figs. 20 and 21). However, w i t h E n e g a t i v e the single Cusp b r e a k s up into two component Cusps; w i t h E p o s i t i v e the s u r f a c e b e c o m e s two n o n c o n n e c t i n g sheets (Figs. 20 and 21). Figs. 22 and 23 show B n o n - z e r o for A p o s i t i v e and zero. 0 = -I. 0 Fig. 0 B : 0 . 0 E = -I. 0 E=+<0 Fig.

These pictures show how the Wigwam sections can be constructed by surgery of two previously separate surfaces. Figs. 40 (A and B) and 41 (A and B) with A either zero or positive simply show the superficial production of Swallowtail-like sections shown also in Figs. 9 (A and B)). (as ~Q ii --~ ii -I"1 u o ÷ ~ n o o ~ . 0 F = ' I - O F i ~ . 0 Fig. 0 tB - 0 . 0 F ' - I . 0 B : 0'0 C : + I f 0 A - - 8 . 0 B " 0,0 C " + l f 0 Fig. 0 o P I ÷ 0 C') C0 C~ CO ~Q c~ ! # C') ~J -n II "4- ? O C : - 5 . 0 A - 0 .

27 and 28). Figs 29 (A and B), 30, 31 and 32 show the complex changes that occur in the projected surface when B is varied (A negative, C positive D zero). Note, for example the Wigwam-like morphology of part of Fig. 0. Fig. 33 shows the changes produced when D is varied. O Fig. O Fig. O C=-iO. 0 Fig. 0 C=-20. O F i g . 0 28 A=+5"O B'O'O C=+5"0 D=O'O ! i + c~ Q o ii o + ° 48 A : - 7 . 0 C=+12. D ' 0 . 0 Fig. 0 A = - 8 . 5 C ' + I 0 . 0 A ' - 8 . 0 A ' - 8 . 0 Fig. 30 50 A = - 8 . 0 B=+2. 0 A = - 8 .