By Jack B. Martin

The results of greater than ten years of study, A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee attracts at the services of a linguist and a local Creek speaker to yield the 1st glossy dictionary of the Creek language of the southeastern usa. The dictionary contains over seven thousand Creek-English entries, over 4 thousand English-Creek entries, and over 400 Creek position names in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Oklahoma. the amount additionally comprises illustrations, a map, antonyms, dialects, stylistic info, be aware histories, and different valuable reference fabric. Entries are given in either the conventional Creek spelling and a latest phonemic transcription. A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee is the normal reference paintings for the Creek language.

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However, there are several factors showing that his methodology is misleading. First, Matisoff’s method cannot be applied across all languages. For instance, the Chinese languages cannot be subgrouped based on the patterns of tonal splits in *checked syllables. It is very obvious that the dialects of Mandarin are divided into two groups. 25 below. 25 is built based on data discussed in the previous sections. This division of Mandarin is unacceptable because it groups some Mandarin dialects with Yue and others with Xiang and Gan, and we know on other grounds that all Mandarin dialects have a common ancestor that was more recent than their common ancestor with any of the other Sinitic languages.

In addition, Mosuo, which is a sibling language of Naxi, does not have pre-nasalized stops. Furthermore, it is very difficult to locate the donor that has given those pre-nasalized stops to Naxi. According to Dai (1992:42), the pre-nasalized stops in Naxi correspond to the [ࢱ] and [m] initials in Written Tibetan; thus, those pre-nasalized stops in Naxi could be an inherited characteristic rather than a borrowed one. 39 These dialects of Yi, like Naxi, are subcategorized in the tonal-split group of flip-flop.

1. 4. 4 shows that *C, which does not involve any contrast in the *checked tone, is the parent language of two groups. One group includes languages that have never experienced any tone change in their *checked syllables and belong to the “un-split” pattern. ” The groups of “regularity” and “flip-flop” show two-way tonal contrast in *checked syllables, but the group of “irregularity” does not. 4. ” The pattern of “un-split” maintains one tonal value from its *checked syllables; in other words, it did not involve any tone contrast in *checked syllables.

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